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应用心理学系列学术报告预告(一)

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讲座题目一:When small offenses have major negative consequences: Effects of rudeness on individuals and teams functioning

讲 座 人:Amir Erez

讲座人简介:

Dr. Amir Erez is the W. A. McGriff III Professor of Management at the Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida. He studies how positive moods and positive personality influence individuals through processes, motivation and work behaviors. He also investigates how negative work behaviors such as rudeness and disrespect affect individuals’ performance and cognition. Dr. Erez served as an editorial board member for Academy of Management Journal (2008-2013), Journal of Applied Psychology (2008-2014), Journal of Management (2009-2014), Journal of Business and Psychology (2009-2012), and Motivation and Emotion (1998-2015). He has published his research in scholarly journals including Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, and Human Performance. His research has also received intensive media attention including New York Times, Time Magazine, and Daily Mail (UK).

讲座英文摘要:

Rude and disrespectful behaviors are very prevalent in organizations—and the situation is getting worse. One-fourth of employees polled in the US in 1998 said they were treated rudely once or more a week, by 2013 that number had risen to nearly half. But is rudeness a real problem? Can’t just people ignore rudeness or simply “get over it” and go about their daily tasks? For the past decade, along with multiple co-authors I have focused on learning more about some objective effects of rudeness. Overall, we found that rudeness directly affects cognition. Those who encounter rudeness cannot pay attention to information, don’t remember information, solve problems less well, and perform poorly on various tasks. In turn, in multiple studies we found that rudeness has devastating effects on individuals and groups performance. For example, in one study we found that relatively mild rude comments from an external source explained 47% of the variance in medical teams’ abilities to perform well tasks such as resuscitating, ventilating, treating shock, and ordering and mixing medications. In another study we found that exposure to rudeness caused both anesthesiology residents and medical students to be locked onto an erroneous first diagnosis. In another study we found that incidents of rudeness during surgeries had significant effect on adverse outcomes for patients. Overall, our studies show that many of these effects are immediate, devastating to individuals and teams performance, and they are not under the conscious control of individuals and therefore people cannot simply “get over it.” Thus, our findings suggest that rudeness can tarnish a culture and that it can take a toll on people and organizations in multiple ways.

讲座中文摘要:

粗鲁(rudeness)和无礼行为在组织中非常普遍——并且这种情况正在变得更加糟糕。1998年美国的一项调查中,四分之一的员工表示他们每周至少受到过一次无礼对待,至2013年这个比例上升了近50%。但是粗鲁行为真的是一个严重的问题吗?人们可不可以无视它们并继续他们的日常工作?过去十年,我与多位合作者专注于了解粗鲁的客观效果。总的来说,我们发现经历粗鲁行为直接影响一个人的认知系统。遭遇粗鲁对待的人对于信息的注意和记忆能力下降,无法很好地解决问题,并会在各项任务上表现不佳。并且,我们在多项研究中发现粗鲁会严重影响个人以及团队的绩效。例如,在一项研究中我们发现,即使是他人语气相对温和的一个粗鲁评论,也会导致医疗团队在执行心肺复苏,人工呼吸,处理休克以及订购药物等任务上有47%的绩效差异。在另一项研究中,我们发现经历粗鲁对待会导致麻醉医生和医学生都在诊断上被干扰和影响。我们还发现,手术期间的粗鲁事件对患者的预后效果有显著影响。总而言之,我们的研究表明粗鲁的许多负面影响是立竿见影的,它会严重降低个人和团队绩效,并且不受个人的意识控制,因而人们无法简单地无视它。因此,我们的研究结果表明粗鲁可能会为组织文化带来严重后果,并可能以多种方式对人和组织造成损害。

讲座题目二:The role of necessary evils in leadership development

讲 座 人:Joyce Bono

讲座人简介:

Dr. Joyce E. Bono is the W. A. McGriff, III Professor of Management at the Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida. She is also the Director of University of Florida Leadership Lab. Her research interests include leadership, personality, motivation, job attitudes and emotions, the advancement of women leaders, and the effects of managers on employees’ quality of work life. She is the recipient of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Distinguished Early Career Contributions Award (2007) and her research has been recognized with the Academy of Management Human Resource Divisions’ Scholarly Achievement Award (2002), and with the Center for Creative Leadership-Leadership Quarterly Best Paper Award (2007). She served as an associate editor for Academy of Management Journal (2010-2013) and an editorial board member for Leadership Quarterly (2004-2009), Personnel Psychology (2007-2010), Journal of Management (2008-2009), and Journal of Applied Psychology (2008-2010). Dr. Bono has published over 15 research articles in top-tier journals including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology.

讲座英文摘要:

This qualitative study examines the effects of engaging “necessary evils” on managers leadership development. Managers are often placed in situations where they are asked to “hurt” employees in order to achieve a business goal. The primary purpose of this research is to better understand how leaders develop in response to such situations. We interviewed 20 managers about situations where they had to do something to help the organization they believed was wrong. We also collected critical incidents from an additional 136 managers. Our analysis of the qualitative interviews revealed that managers made sense of these types of events (engaging in necessary evil) in four prototypical ways, each of which led to distinctly different ways of constructing the leadership role. This research sheds light on what and how managers learn from difficult experiences on the job.

讲座中文摘要:

我们的研究考察了做“必要的坏人”对管理者领导力发展的影响。管理人员经常处于不得不“伤害”员工以实现业务目标的情况。这项研究的主要目的是更好地了解领导如何应对这种情况。我们对20位管理人员进行了访谈,了解他们为了帮助组织去做但他们自身认为是错误的事情的情况。我们还收集了另外136名管理人员提到的关键事件。质性访谈的分析显示管理人员用四种典型的方式理解这类事件(做必要的坏人),继而导致领导们用不同的方式构建领导角色。这项研究揭示了管理者在工作中的艰难经历中学到了什么及其过程。

讲座题目三Improving the lives of leaders at work and at home: Benefits of positive leader self-reflection

Klodiana Lanaj

讲座人简介

Dr. Klodiana Lanaj is the Associate Professor and Walter J. Matherly Professor of Management at the Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida. Her research interests include leader emergence and leadership processes in teams, leader self-regulation, engagement, and wellbeing, and self-regulation and wellbeing at work and home. She is the recipient of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Distinguished Early Career Contributions Award (2018), Academy of Management Journal Best Reviewer Award (2017), Hough Faculty Research Fellowship from University of Florida (2015-2018), and Excellence Award for Assistant Professors from University of Florida (2016). She currently serves as an editorial board member for Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Personnel Psychology. Dr. Lanaj has published over 10 research articles within the past five years in top-tier journals including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

讲座英文摘要:

Leader identity theory posits that in addition to being positional, leadership is also a malleable state of mind. This means that even employees holding positions of authority within their organization may identify more strongly with their leader role on some days versus others. The leadership literature, however, is silent about what state leader identity may mean for leaders’ subsequent attitudes at work and at home. We draw from leader identity theory and research on expressive writing to propose that leader identity can be enhanced daily via positive leader self-reflection (e.g., reflecting and writing about qualities that make one a good leader), in ways that are beneficial for the leader both at work and at home. We tested our theoretical expectations in two field experiments. In the first study, as expected, we find that leaders reported higher leader identity and more goal progress on intervention (vs. control) days. In turn, leader identity and goal progress enhanced leader eudemonic wellbeing measured in the evening at home. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations, the wellbeing enhancing effects of positive leader self-reflection were weaker for leaders were higher (vs. lower) in identity fusion with their followers. In the second study, we demonstrate the malleable nature of leader identity by showing not only that positive leader self-reflection enhances leader identity, but also that negative leader self-reflection diminishes leader identity.

讲座中文摘要

领导身份认同理论认为,领导力也是一种可塑性的心理状态。这意味着,即使是在其组织内担任管理职务的员工,也可能在某些时刻更认同自己的领导角色。然而,领导力研究尚未涉及领导身份认同的心理状态如何继而影响领导对工作和家庭所持的态度。基于领导身份认同理论和表达性写作的实证研究,我们提出,领导身份认同可以通过积极自省(如反思并写出使人成为优秀领导者的品质)得以提升,从而对领导的工作和家庭生活产生益处。我们通过两个现场实验来佐证我们的假设。在第一个实验中,我们发现领导在接受干预的几天内(相比于未接受干预的时间)报告了更高的领导身份认同和更迅速的目标进展。而领导身份认同和目标进展在晚间增强了领导者的幸福感。令人惊讶的是,对于与下属拥有高身份融合的领导来说,这种积极自省干预的积极效应更弱。在第二个研究中,我们再一次印证了领导身份认同的可塑性,我们发现领导的积极自省可以增强领导身份认同,而消极自省可以削弱领导身份认同。

讲座题目四From Employee-Experienced High-Involvement Work System to Innovation: An Emergence-Based Human Resource Management Framework

Mo Wang

讲座人简介

Dr. Mo Wang is the Lanzillotti-McKethan Eminent Scholar Chair at the Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida. He is also the Department Chair of the Management Department, as well as the Director of Human Resource Research Center at the University of Florida. He specializes in research areas of retirement and older worker employment, occupational health psychology, expatriate and newcomer adjustment, leadership and team processes, and advanced quantitative methodologies. He has published over 20 research articles within the past five years in top-tier journals including Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. He received Academy of Management HR Division Scholarly Achievement Award (2008), Careers Division Best Paper Award (2009), European Commission’s Erasmus Mundus Scholarship for Work, Organizational, and Personnel Psychology (2009), Emerald Group’s Outstanding Author Contribution Awards (2013 and 2014), Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology’s William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award (2016), and Journal of Management Scholarly Impact Award (2017) for his research in these areas. He also received Cummings Scholarly Achievement Award from Academy of Management’s OB Division (2017), Early Career Contribution/Achievement Awards from American Psychological Association (2013), Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2013), Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (2012), Academy of Management’s HR Division (2011) and Research Methods Division (2011), and Society for Occupational Health Psychology (2009). He currently serves as the Editor-in-Chief for Work, Aging and Retirement and an Associate Editor for Journal of Applied Psychology. Dr. Wang was the President of the Society for Occupational Health Psychology (2014-2015) and the Director for the Science of Organizations Program at National Science Foundation (2014-2016).

讲座英文摘要:

The influence of human resource management (HRM) on innovation has attracted considerable research attention over the last decade. However, existing studies have primarily focused on the macro-level HRM architecture, limiting our understanding about the cross-level origin of innovation. Developing an emergence-based HRM framework, we propose that employee-experienced high-involvement work system (HIWS) promotes innovation by eliciting collective interactions for knowledge exchange and aggregation. Further, we investigate the emergence enabling process that facilitates employee-experienced HIWS to give rise to organization-level innovation. Specifically, we probe three distinct emergence enablers that amplify the positive influence of HIWS on innovation by shaping the concertedness, direction, and adaptability of collective interactions—that is, the homogeneity of HIWS experiences as the internal mechanism, the strategic importance of innovation as the external mechanism, and the churn in human resources as the temporal mechanism. We tested our theoretical model using data from a nationally representative sample of workplaces in Canada (N = 2,639). Our results suggest that employee-experienced HIWS was positively related to innovation. In addition, this positive effect was amplified by all three emergence enablers (i.e., the homogeneity of HIWS experiences, the strategic importance of innovation, and the churn in human resources).

讲座中文摘要:

在过去十年中,人力资源管理(HRM)对创新的影响吸引了大量研究的关注。然而,现有研究主要关注宏观层面的人力资源管理架构,而我们对跨层次创新起源的理解远远不足。通过提出一个基于涌现的HRM框架,我们认为,员工体验的高参与工作系统(HIWS)通过引发知识交流和综合的集体互动来促进创新。此外,我们研究了促进员工体验的HIWS提升组织层面创新的启动流程。具体而言,我们通过塑造集体互动的协调性,方向性和适应性三种不同的涌现因素,从而扩大HIWS对创新的积极影响——即HIWS体验作为内部机制的同质性,创新作为外部机制的战略重要性,以及人力资源流失作为时间机制。我们利用加拿大代表性工作场所的样本(N = 2,639)检验理论模型。研究结果表明,员工体验的HIWS与创新呈显著的正相关。 此外,三种涌现因素(即HIWS体验的同质性,创新的战略重要性和人力资源的流失)都增强了这种积极效应。

主持人:张宝山 教授

讲座时间:8:00

讲座日期:2019-5-8

地 点:雁塔校区教学九楼9209学术报告厅

主办单位:心理学院

 

 

 

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